Many older women experience recurrent bouts of bladder and/or kidney infection. Why? There are many reasons as explained by these researchers. They include weaker pelvic muscles, diabetes, lack of estrogen, and loss of protective Lactobacilli in the vaginal flora. These risk factors tend to become more common as women grow older. One of the new findings in this study is that many bacteria are capable of getting themselves into, and even beyond, the bladder’s surface area, called the urothelium. This partly explains why it is sometimes difficult to clear such bacteria. Antibiotics are helpful in treating bladder and kidney infections, but this should be done judiciously to reduce the chances of the bacteria becoming resistant to antibiotic treatment.